Saturday, February 8, 2020
I am not sure the topic - Research Paper Example Access of women in military is still an unpopular phenomenon due to their physique and psychological effectiveness. Since the inception, women in military were assigned only clerical, nursing, driving jobs and many at times in the production of ammunition. Hence, women worked in military, but their roles were just to support soldiers passively. However, with immense human loss in World War I, the need to grow troops demanded replacement of gender. Thus, First World War brought with it dramatic alteration in the role of women, instead of protesting and grieving over their loved ones they provided their support by being recruited on their military posts. When men were assigned overseas job, women replaced their vacant spaces in all walks of life from industry to armed forces. Hence, the trend of Victorian and Edwardian era of women was discarded completely. United Kingdom: In current decade, United Kingdom has allowed seventy percent of their female gender to opt for military positions . In 2002, Ministry of defense pronounced these positions for women and they could actively participate in naval crafts and air force. However, frontline fighters post is not open for them due to their physical and psychological structure (Noakes, 10). This dynamic change did not happen rapidly, but in 1998 it was increased to forty percent and later on to a maximum limit of seventy percent till twenty first century (ibid). The reason to ban them from frontline combatant position was their capability to endure, pressure, danger, strength, suitability and numerous psychological factors. However, few exceptional females did fit under the established criteria for such posts, but their quantity was small and unusual. Nevertheless, contribution of women in other European countries like Germany, Finland, Romania, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, France, Netherland and few others has significantly increased and these countries also have assigned women to the front line combat positions as well. Th e current statistics of recent decade shows that there is an incline in women for the front line combatant position with an approximate of thirteen to seventeen percent. Hence, except United Kingdom, most of the other European countries have increased the number of women admittance in military. In 1996, women on prominent positions of military forces were denounced by the authorities and were transferred to female platoons. Their transference was referred as training and adjustment according to their physique. Hence, they were not allowed to join Royal Armoured corps and Marines, RAF Regiment. Moreover, they could not drive tanks or become mine clearance divers (Sherrow, 44). The question is how UK has proved its Victorian and Edwardian theory of docile women. A research and observation on mixed gender troops and single gender troops was conducted to assess the efficiency and influence of Women in military services along with men. The hypothesis was that women in front line troops e ntail risk with less or zero efficiency in terms of combat effectiveness. Hence, their presence stimulates a sense of weakness, delicacy, liability towards them and male combatants also lose their efficiency. Therefore, to maintain the level of efficiency in a troop, single gender troop either of male or female works toward the desired target more efficiently (Noakes, 10-11). Moreover, theory of mixed troops entails
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Organisational Behaviour Essay There are many ways in which different individuals have viewed personality. Robbins et al (2001, p. 99) define it as Ã¢â¬Å"the consistent psychological patterns within an individual that affect the way they interact with others and the situations they encounterÃ¢â¬ . Another definition provided by Huczynski and Buchanan (2007, p. 138) is that personality Ã¢â¬Å"is the psychological qualities that influence an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s characteristic behaviour patterns, in a stable and distinctive mannerÃ¢â¬ . PersonalityÃ¢â¬â¢s Role in Organizational Behaviour With the abovementioned definitions of personality, there are a numerous reasons as to why this is of great interest when it comes to the study of Organizational Behaviour. One main reason is that job performance and career success are related to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s personality as many managers have come to believe. Personality assessments or Ã¢â¬Ëpsychometric testsÃ¢â¬â¢ are widely used by companies to assess an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s personality. A couple of the known approaches to these tests are nomothetic, the basis of the majority of the available psychometrics, and idiographic. The former is more objective and quantitative, which is mostly comprised of multiple-choice questions and hence easier to administer, while the latter rely on heavily on different assumptions about human psychology. (Huczynski Buchanan 2007, p. 137) Types of Personality Assessment Tools Out of the many personality assessment tools available today, the four which will be further discussed will be the DISC Model, JungÃ¢â¬â¢s Personality Type Matrix, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Friedman and RosenmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Type A Type B Personalities. There will be an overlay between the mentioned assessment tools and the others that have not been stated. (Richards n. d. ) These assessments aid not only companies when it comes to appraising an employee but also are now available for individuals who want to measure their own capability and learn how to make the most of their strengths. DISC Model The DISC Model originated from Dr. William Moulton MarstonÃ¢â¬â¢s 1928 book entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Emotions of Normal PeopleÃ¢â¬ . The term DISC was initially discussed in the book. However, Dr. Marston did not have the intention of creating any sort of assessment tool. It was not till 1972 when researchers from the University of Minnesota developed the abovementioned tool. A number of books have been written and various interpretations on the topic have emerged. Dr. MarstonÃ¢â¬â¢s idea when he coined the term DISC can be seen as revolving around Ã¢â¬Å"behaviourÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"situationÃ¢â¬ . The most generalized outline of the model is as follows. DISC stands for Ã¢â¬Å"dominanceÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"influenceÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"steadinessÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"complianceÃ¢â¬ . A person who falls under Dominance and Influence is considered to be generally proactive and extraverted while someone who is under Steadiness and Compliance is somewhat the opposite, reactive and an introvert. Those whose personality is thought to belong to Dominance and Compliance have their focal point to be Ã¢â¬Å"thingsÃ¢â¬ whereas that of the people whose personality belongs to Influence and Steadiness is seen as Ã¢â¬Å"peopleÃ¢â¬ . (Richards n. d. ) The small connection ends there. A closer look at each of the types could reveal more. An individual who is a type Dominance will have the following attributes. He or she is Ã¢â¬Å"decisive, dominant, self-assured, forceful, task-orientedÃ¢â¬ and is someone who Ã¢â¬Å"instigates, leads and directsÃ¢â¬ . His or her main motivation will be the sense of Ã¢â¬Å"responsibility and achievementÃ¢â¬ . Subsequently, this person Ã¢â¬Å"fears failure and loss of powerÃ¢â¬ . When in a working environment, he or she will have a Ã¢â¬Å"strong focus on tasksÃ¢â¬ and his or her Ã¢â¬Å"forceful style can upset peopleÃ¢â¬ . As for someone who falls under Influence, he or she Ã¢â¬Å"motivates others via influence and persuasionÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"presents wellÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"inspires othersÃ¢â¬ . He or she possesses Ã¢â¬Å"good communication skillsÃ¢â¬ , as well as the qualities of being Ã¢â¬Å"friendlyÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"affableÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"intuitiveÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"gregariousÃ¢â¬ . Recognition and personal approvalÃ¢â¬ are their motivational factors. Ã¢â¬Å"Rejection and loss of reputationÃ¢â¬ make up their fears. The fact that they emphasize so much on image can result in substance negligence. Anyone belonging to type Steadiness acquires attributes such as Ã¢â¬Å"reliable, depe ndable, process-oriented, listener, friendly, trustworthy, solid, ethicalÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"methodicalÃ¢â¬ . He or she Ã¢â¬Å"finishes what others start and leaveÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"decides according to processÃ¢â¬ . This person is Ã¢â¬Å"motivated by time, space and continuity to do things properlyÃ¢â¬ . Their fears include Ã¢â¬Å"insecurity and changeÃ¢â¬ . Having this personality type meant that the person depends on the process to such an extent that any signs of changes will be resisted. Lastly, those who are under Compliance are Ã¢â¬Å"painstaking, investigative, curiousÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"correctÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"detailedÃ¢â¬ . He or she is a Ã¢â¬Å"checkerÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"decides using facts and figuresÃ¢â¬ . Motivation for them would be Ã¢â¬Å"attention to detail, perfection and truthÃ¢â¬ whereas fears are Ã¢â¬Å"inaccuracy and unpredictabilityÃ¢â¬ . Their Ã¢â¬Å"need for perfectionÃ¢â¬ tends to Ã¢â¬Å"delay or obstructÃ¢â¬ them from achieving what is required. (Richards n. d. ) From the above, it can be seen that the DISC model has four main Ã¢â¬Å"typeÃ¢â¬ which describes the certain corresponding personalities. When taking this assessment, one must keep in mind that he or she does not exclusively belong to just one type. This tool identifies the dominant type as well as two supporting types to varying extent which is dependent on the person and the situation. The mixture of the types, dominant and supporting, provides a good illustration of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s personality from various perspectives. (Richards n. d. ) JungÃ¢â¬â¢s Personality Type Matrix Carl Gustav Jung, one of the many great personality theorists, is well-known for his work Ã¢â¬â JungÃ¢â¬â¢s Personality Type Matrix or JungÃ¢â¬â¢s Psychological Types which he derived from the ancient Greek Four Temperaments Model. His approach to this study was from a clinical psychoanalysis perspective. Most of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s widely used psychometrics, such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, have greatly benefited from JungÃ¢â¬â¢s theories. Jung structured his functional types into four. His four functions of the psyche are Thinking and Feeling, which helps us to decide and judge, and, Sensation and Intuition, which helps us to perceive and gather information. He called the first two functions Rational and the other two, Irrational. (Chapman 2010) Thinking is about Ã¢â¬Å"what something isÃ¢â¬ . It is about Ã¢â¬Å"meaning and understandingÃ¢â¬ . It involves Ã¢â¬Å"analytic, objective, principles, standards and criteriaÃ¢â¬ . Feeling is about Ã¢â¬Å"whether it is good or notÃ¢â¬ . It is about Ã¢â¬Å"weight and valueÃ¢â¬ . It involves Ã¢â¬Å"subjective, personal, valuing, intimacy and humaneÃ¢â¬ . Sensation is knowing that Ã¢â¬Å"something existsÃ¢â¬ . It can also be referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"sensual perceptionÃ¢â¬ . It is Ã¢â¬Å"realistic, down-to-earth, practical and sensibleÃ¢â¬ . Intuition is concerned with Ã¢â¬Å"where it is from and where it is goingÃ¢â¬ . It is about Ã¢â¬Å"possibilities and atmosphereÃ¢â¬ . It involves Ã¢â¬Å"hunches, future, speculative, fantasy and imaginativeÃ¢â¬ . Further explanations on the four functions are as follows: (Chapman 2010) Ã¢â¬Å"Jungs Thinking function is a rational process of understanding reality, implications, causes and effects in a logical and analytical way. It is systematic, evaluates truth, and is objective to the extent that evaluation is based on personal intelligence and comprehension. Ã¢â¬ Jungs Feeling function makes judgements on a personal subjective basis. It is a rational process of forming personal subjective opinion about whether something is good or bad, right or wrong, acceptable or unacceptable, etc. , and involves sentimentality and humanity. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Jungs Sensation function translates signals from the senses into factual data. There is no judgement of right or wrong, good or bad, implications, causes, directions, context, possibilities, themes, or related concepts. Sensation sees what is, as what it is. Ã¢â¬ Jungs Intuition function translates things, facts and details into larger conceptual pictures, possibilities, opportunities, imaginings, mysticism and new ideas. Intuition largely ignores essential facts and details, logic and truth. Ã¢â¬ Based on JungÃ¢â¬â¢s Four Functions of the Psyche, his Eight Personality Types came about by adding Ã¢â¬Å"introversionÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"extraversionÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Ëgeneral attitude typesÃ¢â¬â¢ to the four superior functions. The characteristics of each of these types are as follows. Extraverted Thinking organizes others, implements, plans, is strategic and analytical. Introverted Thinking seeks elf-knowledge, is theoretical, discovering and contemplative. Extraverted Feeling seeks personal and social success, is sentimental and sociable. Introverted Feeling seeks inner intensity, is self-contained, enigmatic a nd inaccessible. Extraverted Sensation is hard-headed, pleasure-seeking, hands-on and practical. Introverted Sensation is an expert, a connoisseur, detached, obsessive and intense. Extraverted Intuition proposes change, seeks novelty, is innovative and adventurous. Introverted Intuition is aloof, mystical, esoteric, visionary and idealistic. These only refer to the principal functions. Once the auxiliary functions, the less dominant functions, come into the picture, it produces sixteen personality types with more in-depth analysis. (Chapman 2010) It is these final types which directly relates to the next assessment tool Ã¢â¬â the MBTI. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Isabel Briggs Myers, along with her mother, Katherine Briggs, developed the instrument MBTI in the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s which has been based on Carl JungÃ¢â¬â¢s Personality Matrix. All in all, they established sixteen different and distinctive personality types. These types came about through the interactions among oneÃ¢â¬â¢s preferences. One may figure out his or her personality type by first deciding on his or her preference in each of the following categories: Extraversion (E), focusing on the outer world or Introversion (I), to prefer oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own inner world. Sensing (S), all about the basic information taken in or Intuition (N), interpreting and adding meaning to the information. In decision-making, Thinking (T), logic and consistency first or Feeling (F), people and the special circumstances. Structure-wise, Judging (J), getting things decided or Perceiving (P), remaining open in case of new information and options. Once the preference has been made, a four-letter code emerges. It could be ISTJ, ISFJ, INFJ, INTJ, ISTP, ISFP, INFP, INTP, ESTP, ESFP, ENFP, ENTP, ESTJ, ESFJ, ENFJ or ENTJ. Each of these types has a corresponding personality description. With the MBTI instrument, there is no such thing as measuring trait ability or character, instead, it sorts for preferences. The main reason why this instrument is the most popular is the fact that hundreds of studies in the past forty years have proven MBTI to be valid and reliable. (The Myers Briggs Foundation n. d. ) Type A Ã¢â¬â Type B Personalities The very first time the two types of personality were described was in the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s by cardiologists Meyer Friedman and R. H. Rosenham. With reference to JungÃ¢â¬â¢s Matrix, Type A is a left-sided STJ but Type B is a right-sided NFP. (Changingminds. org 2010) The typing is broadly based on anxiety and stress levels. Type A people enjoy constantly working to achieve goals; the more difficult, the better. Their drive to compete can cause them to create the sense of competition. Failure is one thing they try hard to avoid. They are mostly well-educated. On the contrary, Type B work steadily and do not obsess about not achieving what they have set out to do. They are creative; love to explore new ideas. They are often reflective. Challenging a Type A will be very effective whilst a reflective conversation will work better with a Type B. Ã¢â¬Å"Type A personality has become a household word. Ã¢â¬ (Sharma 1996) According to Dr. Friedman, there are eight major indicators of Type A Behaviour Ã¢â¬â two psychological and six physical. The psychological signs are:Ã Ã¢â¬Å"presence of impatience or easily induced hostilityÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"constant apprehension of future disastersÃ¢â¬ , where the latter is commonly mistaken as a symptom of an anxiety or depressive disorder. The physical signs are: Ã¢â¬Å"excessive perspiration of the forehead and the upper lipÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"teeth grindingÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"indentation of the tongue due to its chronic pressure against the top incisor teethÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"tic-like retraction of the upper eye lidÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"tic-like retraction of the corners of the mouthÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"brown coloring of the skin of the lower eyelidÃ¢â¬ . Type A has generated a huge interest in the medical world as it is highly related to coronary heart disease. Here is an excerpt from MooreÃ¢â¬â¢s (2001) article: Ã¢â¬Å"Type A people are achievement oriented, irritable, impatient with delays, and seem to be always in a hurry. Ã¢â¬ ¦ In contrast to type As, type B people are less competitive, and more easygoing than their type A counterparts. Ã¢â¬ ¦ While most people do not fall into the extreme ends of the continuum, there are significant numbers of people who do seem to be far more intense and reactive than others. Type As are not only reactive, they are also achievement oriented and highly motivated to succeed. They enjoy challenge and like to know how well they are doing. Ã¢â¬ ¦ More recent research has demonstrated that the feature of type A behavior that is particularly toxic is hostility. Ã¢â¬ Scott (2007) mentioned in one of her articles that apart from the fact that those exhibiting Type A personality have a higher ri sk at suffering hypertension and heart diseases, they also suffer from job stress and social isolation. These people are usually in Ã¢â¬Å"stressful, demanding jobsÃ¢â¬ . They, too, tend to distance themselves from others as they focus on their career more than they do on personal relationships. Many researches do believe that it is the environment that caused certain people to develop Type A personalities. As part of their personality, Type As are able to perform well in the workplace because they are high-achievers. (Larson 2009) This is why they hold increasingly high-powered positions. As a result, they find it hard to relax, they are aggressive, they have the tendency to interrupt and they lose sleep frequently. In an office environment, these characteristics can lead to high levels of success but the same can also lead to Type As own pitfalls. They have emphasis on quantity over quality. They are unable to appreciate their own achievements. However, they make great leaders since they work well under pressure. Character Personality Analysis From the 2006 movie, The Devil wears Prada, the character played by Meryl Streep is Miranda Priestly, the Editor-In-Chief for Runway Ã¢â¬â a supposedly top New York fashion Magazine. (Huntley 2009) Anyone could easily tell that she exhibits most of, if not all, of a Type A personality. If it were from the DISC modelÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective, she would fall under the Dominance category while belonging to the typology of JungÃ¢â¬â¢s STJ or the MBTIÃ¢â¬â¢s ISTJ. To categorize here in the boss type, she would be the Ã¢â¬Å"tin manÃ¢â¬ boss with an axe. Her first love would have to be power. She is very career-oriented whose goals and objectives are extremely translucent. For her, Ã¢â¬Å"what is to be done, is to be doneÃ¢â¬ , the word unfeasible does not exist. When in doubt, never approach her as she does not like people boring her with questions of how, what and where. Famous for being unpredictable, she does not care for otherÃ¢â¬â¢s incompetence and is intimidating to the extent that people cannot even be in the same lift as her. It is rather hard to please or impress her. Career-wise, she is an A+ yet as a person, she fails. With her profession the first priority in her life, she has had a broken marriage, twice, and a distorted family life. Despite that, her most valuable assets to her are her twin daughter who she cares for dearly. She indeed lacks personal life. Tagged as Ã¢â¬Å"the dragon ladyÃ¢â¬ , she rarely shows emotions and strongly believes that life is all about the choices you make. Being the powerful lady ruling the kingdom of fashion, she keeps her staff and the fashion world under her thumb. Her actions indeed speak louder than her words because she can make a top designer recreate a whole collection all over again just by pursing her lips. She draws contentment from otherÃ¢â¬â¢s misery. Her disbelief in positive reinforcement has led to a high number of assistants quitting. She is the kind of boss who has no room for lazy employees. A perfectionist, she does not care who she steps on when on her way to the top. Not to forget, sleek and slender Miranda always has to have her Hermes scarf on. It can be seen that MirandaÃ¢â¬â¢s personality does fit her role to some extent. Due to the nature of her job, her business environment matters a lot. Although she is very dominating, the people under her accept that and submit to her wishes as if left with no other choice. It is all about power at the end of the day especially in a high-powered position like that of an Editor-In-Chief. Many people have come to believe that Miranda Priestly has been based on real-life Editor-In-Chief for Vogue Magazine, Anna Wintour. Topsynergy. com (2003) discussed the personalities that are evident in Anna Wintour. She is a perfect example to be displaying Type A behavior which to some extent is relevant to the position she holds and the competitive industry she is in. Describing Wintour in the words of Topsynergy. com; Ã¢â¬Å"Cautious, prudent, and rather self-contained Ã¢â¬ ¦ approaches life realistically Ã¢â¬ ¦ rarely spontaneous Ã¢â¬ ¦ pragmatic, shrewd, and an excellent strategist Ã¢â¬ ¦ very ambitious, but quietly so Ã¢â¬ ¦ emotionally detached Ã¢â¬ ¦ stern, authoritarian, no-nonsense aspect to her personality Ã¢â¬ ¦ her personal relationships may seem constantly in flux Ã¢â¬ ¦ direct, honest, and to the point some might say excessively so Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ There is this contact argument that it is the environment that shapes peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s personality while others believe our personality has to find the kind of environment to which they suit best and perform to their optimum potential. For the latter, the abovementioned psychometric tests help employers, managers and common staff alike to gain insight to any individualÃ¢â¬â¢s personality. This is very essential in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s organizations especially since the level of competition has never been higher.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"Michael Collins the Man Who Made IrelandÃ¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Michael Collins the Man Who Made IrelandÃ¢â¬ is a biography written by Tim Pat Coogan. Tim Pat Coogan is a famous author who was asked to write the biography by his former teacher Fr Michael OÃ¢â¬â¢Carroll. During the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood he was not told anything about Michael Collins. He learned it was a name that either people admired or hated. The reason for this was that some people think of Michael Collins as the man who gained IrelandÃ¢â¬â¢s independence, while others did not like it when he signed the Anglo-Irish Treaty in December, 1921, allowing the British to keep Northern Ireland and were against him for betraying Northern Ireland. When Coogan began his research he discovered that Collins was the founder of modern guerrilla warfare. Also, rulers, such a Mao Tse Tsung of China, had studied Collins tactics. Collins started out with just a small force of eleven men but managed, with all odds against him, to make one of the most powerful empires agree to Ire landÃ¢â¬â¢s independence. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This book is all history and is very accurate in its telling of Michael Collins life. The book is so precise and it mentions so many peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s names it almost hard to keep track of who they are. This book has helped people learn more about the fight for the independence of Ireland and about a national hero who should never be forgotten. In my opinion this book was great and I learned many interesting facts. I would only recommend this book to people who are interested in learning about the fight for Irish Independence and Michael Collins. The reason is because the author at times gives too much detail that is not essential to the story and that makes the book a little boring. The most memorable part of the book is the way that Collins fought the British with so few men and supplies. Most of the men only had revolvers and pistols. His squads had eleven men or fewer yet they went up against much larger numbers of troops that were heavily armed. I was amazed wi th the intelligence network Michael Collins set up to spy on the British. He used the information from his network to plan where and whom his assignation squads would hit. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The difference between De Valera and Michael Collins was very interesting to me because of the way it played out.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Pompeii and Herculaneum are unique and remarkable because of their extraordinary state of preservation. No other archaeological site gives us so much information about life in ancient Rome. Pompeii and Herculaneum were buried in the volcanic eruption in 79AD in different ways, effectively which preserved majority of both sites. These archaeological remains that were left behind, such as bakeries, food bars, brothels, fulleries, wine presses and the Garum industry reveal a great deal about Industries and Occupations of this ancient civilisation. Reliability, usefulness and limitations of these sources play a important role in the accuracy of information. Partially, much of our knowledge about occupations and industries comes from bakeries, as somewhat 33 bakeries have been found scattered around Pompeii. In source 1, the Bakery of Modestus, 81 round loaves of bread divided into eight segments were found concealed in the oven. Although some households may have made their own bread, archaeological evidence reveals that at time of the eruption, most people had bought their bakeries. This evidence is also reliant on the fact that very few houses in Pompeii contained ovens. The bones of two donkeys were found still harnessed to the mills in a bakery in Herculaneum. This evidence suggests that most bakeries functioned this way. It can also be argued that slaves did this job as well. This evidence can be considered reliable and useful as of its number of convincing factors, and no opposing evidence suggesting otherwise. Thermopoliums (snack bars) have also broadened our knowledge about occupation in Herculaeum, as they were very common in ancient everyday life and seen throughout ruins of both towns . A total of over 130 small hot food bars have been identified to this day. In source 2, it can be speculated that food was taken and eaten standing up, as few Thermopoliums had tables and chairs. Penelope Allison, an Australian archaeologist suggests that that the peoples busy lives probably left little time for long meals at the dinner table. This evidence is concluding but can not be relied upon as limited evidence clarifies that they did so. The location of food bars in Herculaneum were mainly found opposite the Palaestra, this is revealing evidence of a great marketing scheme which we still use to this day. This allowed the business to attract more customers and therefore make more usiness. This evidence is also limiting but can be classified as useful in the development of increasing knowledge. Another aspect revealing much about Pompeii's occupational life was Prostitution, also know as lupanaria (brothels) was one of the most popular business in all of Roman society. In Source 3, a erotic image on the wall of a Lupanaria, reveals advertisement of par ticular specialities of a prostitute. We can speculate whether these images were painted on the wall to erouse customers, and or to illistrate different expierences that could be purchased. Many brothels also contained graffiti that mentioned the names of the women who worked their, and customers and the particular services they provided. These useful sources of information are limiting but contribute to our growing knowledge of Prostitution in Pompeii. Furthermore, Fulleries give us a considerable insight on the cloth manufacturing process in Pompeii. In source 4, the fullery of Stephanus, we can learn valuable information on manufacturing process of cloths. Paintings on the wall in the house of Stephanus reveal the process in which the cloths were cleaned. Jars found at the back of the fullery still contained traces of ammonia, which indicate that urine was a important ingredient in the cleaning process. We also know of this key ingrediant as Pliny the Elder states that camel urine was prized most of all. These sources offering information can be considered reliable and useful to archaeologists. Likewise, another Industry that played a important part in Pompeii and Herculaneum economy was production of wine. In source 5, a wine press found in Pompeii, reveals valuable knowledge contributing to the production of wine, as the wine press was involved in the process of wine making. Many houses have been found with wine presses in them aswell as doliums, in which the wine was stored in. Wine was sold widely around the town, as indicated in graffiti on shop fronts. Pliny the Elder states that Ã¢â¬ËPompeian wine could cause a headache that last to none the next day', this supporting evidence gives archaeologists a insight into the quality of which Pompeian wine was, although many customers applauded Pompeian wines, this is evidential by graffiti in bars. Majority of this evidence is both reliable and useful to archaeologists. Another addition to growing knowledge of Pompeii and Herculaneum's economy was the production of Garum. Only one Garum shop has been identified in Pompeii, this shop is shown in source 1 and is supporting evidence towards the production of Garum. Garum was extremely popular, Archaeologists know this with reference to Pliny the Elder who quotes Ã¢â¬Ëno other liquid except urgents has come to be more highly valued'. Archaeologists can also apprehend that Garum was distributed and sold widley around the Italian surrounding areas, we know this from containers of garum that have benn found scattered around the Vesuvius area, as well as traces of Garum jars found in France. As study performed by Robert Curtis, estimated that 70% of Garum was locally produced, this came from the remains of Garum in containers. Pliny statement can be considered reliable as well as useful to archaeologists, this is applies to Robert Curtis' study. In conclusion, it can be argued that Pompeii and Herculaneum are two of the most unigue and important sites of the ancient world.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Employment Discrimination Discrimination is a very hard barrier to break. To discriminate means to distinguish between one another; to make a difference in treatment or favor on the basis other then individual merit. Everyone at some point in their life experiences some form of discrimination that might be on the basis of their race, religion, age, or sex. Discrimination can be examined from many different angles. Because of this, I have decided to discuss one type of discrimination, which is employment discrimination. Throughout this paper I will attempt to answer several questions. Such questions are what is employment discrimination and whom does it effect? What could one do if find that they are a victim of discrimination?Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Another example of this would be if the employer withheld an employee from achieving a promotion because of their age, sex, race, or whatever the case may be. Most cases of employment discrimination follow the sly and tricky form of unfair treatment . (The 2nd form). The law prohibits any discrimination against any person who is applying for a job and or any employee who is currently working for a company. Title V11 of the Civil Rights act of 1964 fights against employment discrimination. Title V11 doesnt allow for employment decisions to be made on the basis of stereotypes and or the assumptions about a persons abilities, performance and traits because of their race, age, sex, religion, etc. It also puts a stop to intentional discrimination and certain job polices that may exclude certain groups of people from achieving different positions that may otherwise be eligible to other groups. The question now one should ask is, How does one prove discrimination? To prove that discrimination has happened one must have a job where their job performance meets satisfactory standards. If one has a satisfactory performance and is fired or mistreated then it is believed that these actions occurred because of reasons other then job r elated. In a case in which a new employee (one who may still be on probation) is terminated may have a hard time trying to prove his/her termination was on the basis of discrimination because he/she doesnt have anShow MoreRelatedEmployment Discrimination And The Employment Essay2596 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesimplications of employment discrimination and the correlation to employment inequality. The unemployment rate for women and minorities is significantly higher than that of the caucasian male majority. Women are faced with obstacles that men are not. Women have to overcome gender stereotypes, child care responsibilities, and sexual harassment as obstacles, Minorities face negative stereotypes and generalizations that make them less desirable to employers. Employment discrimination is responsible forRead MoreAppearance Discrimination in Employment22039 Words Ã |Ã 89 PagesAppearance discrimination in employment: Legal and ethical implications of Ã¢â¬Å"lookismÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"lookphobia Ã¢â¬ [pic] http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=2040-7149volume=32issue=1articleid=17077304show=html Downloads: The fulltext of this document has been downloaded 1519 times since 2013 DOI (Permanent URL):Ã 10.1108/02610151311305632 [pic]Ã Abstract [pic]Ã View PDFÃ (200kb) [pic]Ã Print View References Ã¢â¬ ¢ References (67) Citations Ã¢â¬ ¢ CrossRef (1) Further reading Read MoreDiscrimination in Employment Essay1803 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Discrimination in Employment Equal Pay Act passed in 1970. This implemented the European principle of Equal pay contained in Treaty of Rome Article 119 (now 141) and sets out a broad definition of pay. Although the EPA is limited in application in that the comparison is between a man and a woman presently employed by the same employer, Article 119 of the Treaty of Rome which requires equal pay for identical work between the sexes confers a similar right to every Read MoreAge Discrimination and Employment1126 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Ã¢â¬Æ' Introduction Age discrimination occurs when one particular age group is treated differently to another age group on the grounds of chronological age. A less favorable treatment can occur, for example when a person is refused medical treatment because they are deemed too old. Also, it can manifest through the assumption that older people have a decline in their intellect due to their age, and a decline in their cognitive and physical performance. Individuals regardless of age should notRead MoreEmployment Discrimination And Its Significance1190 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEmployment Discrimination and Its Significance in Canada. A majority of immigrants encounter employment disadvantage or discrimination, compared to native-born Canadians. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s difficult to obtain suitable employment, so immigrant skills are underutilized, earning less income than native-born Canadians (Oreopoulos, 2011; Reitz et al., 2014). It is asserted that discrimination in employment is an act which negatively affects the employment situation of individuals because of membership in a groupRead MoreEssay on Employment Discrimination933 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEmployment Discrimination laws seek to prevent discrimination based on race, sex, religion, national origin, physical disability, and age by employers. There is also a growing body of law preventing or occasionally justifying employment discrimination based on sexual orientation. Discriminatory practices include bias in hiring, promotion, job assignment, termination, compensation, and various types of harassment. The main body of employment discrimination laws is composed of federal and state statutesRead MoreThe Ideas Of Discrimination And Employment Problems1596 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespaper are the ideas of discrimination and employment problems people with disabilities in India face. The definition of discrimination is the unfair or prejudicial treatment of people or things, especially on the grounds of race, age, or sex. The reason I felt these two topics were important is because they go hand in hand; you can be easily discriminated against while trying to find a job based on skin color, gender, etc. First, I will discuss the problem with discrimination and women in India. SecondlyRead MoreGender Discrimination And Equal Employment Essay1465 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGender Discrimination and Equal Employment Introduction Discrimination has existed since the beginning of time. Often time people discriminate upon individuals unintentionally, because of certain stereotypes that have associated with race, gender, and religion. The First Amendment of the United States gives each individual the freedom of not only religion, but expression, and speech. Yet, despite the many historic and recent efforts gender discrimination and inequality is still a major issue inRead MoreEmployment Discrimination Within The Workplace1079 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEmployment Discrimination in Indonesia As stated on wikipedia.org, discrimination is action that denies social participation or human rights to categories of people based on prejudice. This includes treatment of an individual or group based on their actual or perceived membership in a certain group or social category, in a way that is worse than the way people are usually treated. This could be done directly or indirectly. Direct discrimination could arise from punishments and indirect discriminationRead MoreFemale Employment And Gender Discrimination2044 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages What is female employment and what are the reasons of gender discrimination in China? II. Female employment and gender discrimination Today, employment discrimination in society everywhere. From age discrimination, education discrimination, gender discrimination, residence discrimination, physical discrimination, health discrimination, discrimination in marriage and childbearing, to dialect discrimination, blood type discrimination, wages, employment status and even under the career choices of
Saturday, December 28, 2019
Greek mythology was an oral tradition that began in the Bronze Age. Greek mythology was used as a means to explain the environment, the natural phenomena they witnessed, and the passing of time through days, months, and seasons (Cartwright). Around 700 BC, a poet named Hesoid, offered the first origin story of Greek mythology. The Theogony details an elaborate family tree of gods and goddesses who evolved from a primeval void and descended from Earth, the sky, the sea, and the underworld (History.com). Later Greek writers and artists used and elaborated these sources in their work and compiled ancient myths and legends for contemporary audiences (History.com). For the Greeks, these ancient gods and goddesses had control over every aspect of their lives. The ancient Greeks believed there were a great number of gods and goddesses. They could be kind or mean, angry or pleasant, cruel or loving (Ã¢â¬Å"Gods and GoddessesÃ¢â¬ ). Olympian gods and goddesses looked like men and women and were vulnerable to human error (Ã¢â¬Å"Gods and GoddessesÃ¢â¬ ). Temples and sanctuaries were built in honor of most gods and goddesses and festivals were held with parades, sports, sacrifices, and competitions. Each Greek god and goddess had a specific duty in the Earth (Ã¢â¬Å"Gods and GoddessesÃ¢â¬ ). For the ancient Greeks, these gods and goddesses shaped their everyday lives. Greek myths, as any religious or non-written sources, were either believed or discounted by some people (Cartwright). Myths were certainly used forShow MoreRelatedGreek Lore Research Paper Outline1082 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Greek Lore Research Paper Outline Folklore is a collection of stories passed down from generation to generation that include Legends, Myths, and Fairy Tales. Legends are traditional stories sometimes popularly regarded as historical but unauthenticated. Myths are traditional stories, especially one concerning the early history of a people or explaining some natural or social phenomenon, and typically involving supernatural beings or events. Fairy Tales are false stories that is meant toRead MoreGreek Mythology Vs Roman Mythology1256 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Greek vs. Roman Mythology The line separating Greek and Roman mythology may seem very fine, but there are actually a few distinct differences between the two. For example, the Greeks and Romans both presented many of their stories orally, however, the Greeks were the first people to begin writing them down. Greek mythology is superior as it puts more emphasis on the role of mortals, the appearance of gods is more relevant, and its origin is more interesting as it was original and came before theRead MoreOrder From Chaos : Analyzing And Evaluating The Hellenic Creation Myth Through The Lens Of Biblical Tradition1384 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesChaos: Analyzing and Evaluating the Hellenic Creation Myth through the Lens of Biblical Tradition Greek mythology is often understood through the lens of analyzing a dead religion; it is assumed that the influence of such myths is passive and fixed, only effecting the lives of those already long gone, whereas the very nature of such myths is to be active, dynamic, and illuminative. I, like many others with Greek heritage, rarely engage actively with the ancient Hellenic myths. Despite this, it isRead More Definition Essay1002 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDefinition Essay The origin of the word myth seems to be a myth in itself. Myths have generally originated from a Greek history that used an oral tradition to explain events that occurred before the written word. Often supernatural beings or fictitious characters were used to explain popular ideas concerning phenomenas of nature or the history of people. The myths that were carried on from generation to generation were often very imaginative in an attempt to spark the interest of youngRead MoreZeus Of Greek And Indra Of Vedic1601 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesZeus of Greek and Indra of Vedic Mythology can be traced to many different ethnic groups because many values such rich oral and written traditions. There are many ways of telling stories, and through myths, many powerful thoughts and emotions, as well as wisdom, and culture are all folded into one outlet. The comparisons of mythology across different cultures is an attempt to identify shared themes and motifs in the myths themselves. In comparative mythology, the Hindu and Greek mythologies share fascinatingRead MoreThe Iliad And The Odyssey1693 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"The ancient Greeks were a deeply religious people. They worshipped many gods whom they believed appeared in human form and yet were endowed with superhuman strength and ageless beauty. The Iliad and the Odyssey, our earliest surviving examples of Greek literature, record men s interactions with various gods and goddesses whose characters and appearances underwent little change in the centuries that followed. The Greeks attributed these epic narra tives to Homer, a poet living at the end of the 8thRead MoreStorytelling in The Odyssey Essay581 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesStorytelling in The Odyssey The story of Odyssey comes from a time when storytellers spread tales of heroes and heroic deeds. The Greeks have been known to tell their stories of their heroes in oral tradition. The first few lines of the Odyssey is the narrator asking a Muse to help him tell the story of Odysseus. The story is also filled with dialogue, which might indicate that it is a form of theatre and that these lines were performed orally. From the first few lines, the Odyssey could beRead MoreGreek Mythology And The Mythology1154 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesand lessons of Greek mythology have shaped art and literature for thousands of years. Later Greek writers and artists used and elaborated upon these sources in their own work. Did you know that in ancient Greece, stories about gods and goddesses and heroes and monsters were an important part of everyday life. They explained everything from rituals to the weather, and they gave meaning to the world people saw around them. Many consumer products get their names from Greek mythology. For example sportsRead MoreGreek Culture : Ancient Greece1688 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGreek Culture The Greek culture is a culture that I have always found very interesting because of the way it has evolved. The Greeks are very proud of their culture and they speak of their country with an intense passion. There are many things that are a major part of the Greek culture such as: religion, music, language, food, wines, and traditions (Ã¢â¬Å"History of GreeceÃ¢â¬ ). There are many factors that play a role in the creation of the Greek culture such as: religion, culture, history, and othersRead MoreTrickster-God-Creator1433 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTricksters appear in the mythology and folklore of many cultures around the world. Although the power and relative divinity of each Trickster varies from tradition to tradition, Tricksters have important roles in the creation, development, and sometimes destruction, of each culture. The Coyote of Native North American traditions is often depicted as assisting the Ã¢â¬Å"Great MysteryÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Great SpiritÃ¢â¬ in the creating a nd populating of the world (Leeming). In the Greek myths Hermes is initially a sly infant
Friday, December 20, 2019
Macbeth, written by William Shakespeare in the year 1606, is a prominent tragic play that is notoriously recognized for its excessive use of violence. The author mainly elaborates how Macbeth, who used to be a proud hero of Scotland, spreads his turmoil throughout the whole kingdom. In the beginning of the play, Macbeth is widely regarded as an honorable hero because he is a valiant warrior who wants to protect the kingdom to the best of his abilities. As the play progresses, however, MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s personality, motives, and character start to vary dramatically. His personal greed and overconfidence to fulfill his ambition for power leads him to commit malevolent actions that brings upon remorse, despair, and guilt within him and for theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The decline and deterioration of MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s character is a prominent example to demonstrate his downfall as the main tragic hero. In a particular instance throughout the play, Macbeth describes the death of his w ife and does not feel any guilt or remorse within him. To prove this, he articulates upon his thoughts and says, Ã¢â¬Å"She should have died hereafterÃ¢â¬ (V.v.17). The fact that Macbeth does not even care about the death of his wife elaborates the fact that he has been accustomed to his own state of madness that he has been living in for quite some time now. Furthermore, it also portrays that he has completely lost the emotion of fear within himself because his mind is filled with impure thoughts. Macbeth describes himself and says, Ã¢â¬Å"I have almost forgot the taste of fears./ The time has been, my senses would have cooledÃ¢â¬ ¦ As life were inÃ¢â¬â¢t. I have supped full with horrors: /Direness, familiar to my slaughterous thoughtsÃ¢â¬ ¦ (V.v.9-10). Macbeth is slowly losing his mind, his rationality, and his logic in the process, and becomes a more disturbed person from what he was previously. In addition, Elizabeth Montagu provides an internal description of Macbeth and suggests that Ã¢â¬Å"The man of honour pierces through the traitor and the